Topic003: Patterns Within Band Structure, Bill Tifft 1/26/15
My previous Topic002 introduced the crossband structure and suggested that the structure appeared to grow or evolve with time toward lower redshift. I have already indicated in Topic001 that galaxy morphology becomes later in type as one progresses down the band slope toward higher redshift. In QTC the crossband structures appear to represent regions where morphological evolution can actually be demonstrated. That subject is introduced in section 1.1.5 of my book, but was omitted for brevity in the ASP paper available on this website, I will defer most discussion on that topic until the book is available. (For book information or acquisition see Post001 and Post002.) However, I will now introduce and comment upon several relationships of morphology and activity to specific aspects of band and crossband structure.
The upper left frame of Figure 3 in the ASP paper shows redshift distribution for elliptical and proto-spiral So galaxies just outside the core of the Coma cluster. I am using total blue magnitudes, mp, which were widely available, and log redshift since bands are essentially parallel in such patterns. Only upper portions of the bands are present with two leading features shown. Notation is C (Coma), U , M or L (upper, mid, lower band), Number (the first two digits of the redshift where crossbands cross the band involved). A short dashed line marks the Coma cluster mean redshift. The early type E galaxies concentrate around the mean redshift, between two crossband regions. Core concentration of ellipticals is a general characteristic of clusters and compact groups. As we shift to late E and the following So class, however, the pattern splits into two parts which associate with individual crossbands. Arrows indicate morphological trends toward later morphology within crossband regions, demonstrated in my book. The lower redshift set vanishes at later morphologies, the higher set shifts smoothly into spirals. The lower left frame of Figure 3 illustrates this morphological split within the A262 cluster. Morphology is shown as a function of redshift. This redshift association is not spatial subclustering, the galaxies involved are distributed spatially. Redshift grouping, interpreted dynamically, contains inconsistent morphological and luminosity function distributions. For now, however, it is sufficient to see that crossband patterns, which repeat between clusters, relate to morphology.
The bracketed symbols in the A262 diagram are radio sources. They appear to mark the boundary zone between the ellipticals and the later spiral galaxies, potentially suggesting some form of connection. The lower right frame of Figure 3 shows the distribution of radio sources in the Coma cluster. As seen in A262 they form a ‘vertical column’ displaced above the mean cluster redshift (dashed), pass through the CU76 crossband region actually splitting the So and spiral types (as shown in my book figure 1.28), and connect to the CU band head. The isolated low redshift group of Coma radio sources similarly mark the CL band head. As a general rule radio sources appear to associate with the leading (low redshift) end of bands and associate with vertical patterns of early types of galaxies. Could their placement be related to band development suggested in Topic002? In addition to radio galaxies, strong emission line galaxies appear in galaxy cores and populate the same pattern as radio galaxies. This region is outlined in the lead figure for this post. However, weak emission associated with older stellar populations and later morphologies, occur outside the core region and appear to associate uniquely with the CM band (the different distribution is striking and used as the figure at the top of this post, shown in figure 1.30 in my book). What could possibly set the middle band apart? QTC provides a fascinating answer to that question once it became clear what redshift-magnitude bands actually are.
The upper right frame of Figure 3 introduces another remarkable aspect of band structure. The lower half shows the composite structured band pattern of the Coma plus A1367 cluster showing the break between the CU65 and CU76 crossbands. The upper part superimposes the redshift-magnitude patterns (corrected for galactic rotation effects of our galaxy) of five compact groups of early type galaxies that have highly discordant members. The groups superimpose perfectly including their discordant members. The early type galaxies form a vertical pattern which perfectly matches the gap between crossbands where early type Coma galaxies fall. The discordant objects then superimpose at the next lower gap. The likelihood that five independent similar groups, and their discordant members, would superimpose perfectly with each other and the band pattern in this manner is incredibly unlikely if redshifts are a random dynamical quantity. Vertical patterns of early type galaxies are denoted as ‘vertical sequences’ in QTC and consistently appear to correspond with breaks between crossbands. The group pattern also seems to hook around to match the middle band.
With the introduction of vertical patterns I have introduced morphology, activity and vertical patterns in early type galaxies. The ASP paper serves to introduce such structures and relationships. Topic004 will extend the discussion using information in my book.
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