Topic004: Introducing Evidence Relating to Galaxy Evolution, Bill Tifft 3/01/15
Topic001 indicated that galaxy morphology becomes progressively later in type down the redshift-magnitude band slope toward higher redshift. Topic002 introduced crossband structures within redshift-magnitude bands and indicated that such structures appear to grow or evolve toward lower redshift. The structures appear to be regions where morphological evolution in individual galaxies may actually be investigated. The subject is introduced in section 1.1.5 of my book but could not be included within the limited space of the ASP article available within this blog. Since my book is now available I will continue the ASP references, but refer to the book as required to describe and illustrate findings. I added a figure leading the topical introduction in the main blog but discussion and figures in the book are needed for many topics. (For book information or acquisition see Post001 and Post002.)
To simplify discussing the QTC concept of evolution I will state the concept before presenting the evidence, which is only the beginning, with much more to learn. What I say should become increasingly clear later. The focus must remain on the redshift as a potentially intrinsic property of galaxies which can generate clear dynamical inconsistencies. The redshift and such inconsistencies must be incorporated consistently within any evolutionary model. Such evidence appears to imply that galaxies, aggregates of galaxies or related objects and even the universe itself may arise as `outflow’ from `central sources’ which potentially include cluster cores and galaxy nuclei. What central sources are and outflow means relating to the nature of the redshift will be defined and demonstrated subsequently. The concepts are fascinating and need to be introduced to discuss what the early observations could mean. Additional consistent data was required before I was convinced I understood what the early data was suggesting was possibly actually true. I believe modern science, cosmology in particular, has gone astray by ignoring such clues, some of which are amazingly clear observationally.
There are two effects which relate to the concept of systematic evolution of an intrinsic redshift toward lower values. At the scale of entire clusters the mean redshift decreases as one moves radially toward the cluster core. The mean redshift of the core of the Perseus cluster is an astounding 700 km/s less than the outer parts. The effect in the Coma cluster is shown in figure 1.20 in my book. The redshift dispersion range increases toward the core as expected but is markedly asymmetric. The lower limit of redshift dispersion drops rapidly to lower redshift with decreasing radius, but the upper limit remains quite constant. The effect is seen consistently. In my book compare figures 1.32 and 1.33 for the Perseus cluster and 1.36 and 1.37 for the high redshift cluster 1358+62. Why does the core of such clusters seem to be `evolving’ toward lower redshift while a radially dispersed halo with increasingly later morphology fades away toward some upper redshift limit? This distinctly non-dynamical pattern is what generates the redshift-morphology correlation. The asymmetry yields another dynamical problem. Note, in the high redshift cluster in book figure 1.36, the clear absence of lower luminosity function galaxies in the So z=0.321 low redshift extension. Why are lower luminosity galaxies within a morphologically similar group absent or displaced to higher redshift along redshift-magnitude bands? This is a general problem with any given crossband grouping along redshift-magnitude bands. Why does the core of clusters appear to be surging toward lower redshift leaving morphologically later galaxies to fade out behind them?
Turning to morphological patterns in individual crossband structures, Topic003 illustrates that, in the Coma cluster, an early elliptical concentration (E3 or rounder), apparently related to vertical structures including active galaxies, seems to lead to or associate with a division into two major crossband structures containing later (flatter) ellipticals and So galaxies. As stated, but not shown in Topic003, the lower redshift So pattern virtually disappears at later morphologies while the higher redshift pattern continues (with a shift toward lower redshift) into a tight pattern of later So/a and early Sa to Sb spirals. The spiral pattern is shown in the lead diagram of the introductory statement for this topic and the complete set of patterns appears in figure 1.21 in my book. If you do not have my book, to see this remarkable morphological pattern clearly copy the ASP Figure 3 and place the upper left part directly above the lead figure for this topic to see how the redshift pattern changes between So and early spirals within the same region of the cluster. The split is also at the same redshift as the column of radio and active emission objects shown in the lower right frame of ASP Figure 3. From the viewpoint of evolution of an intrinsic redshift property inherent to individual galaxies the patterns are open to interpretation.
Is it possible that early ellipticals are `born’, settle into crossband structures and begin a trek through later morphologies? Has the lead, perhaps most recently formed, So group not had time to evolve beyond So while the next group has had time to proceed to spirals and so on down a redshift-magnitude band? It was too early to really say that, but I tested the idea using the lead CL redshift-magnitude band CL47 and CL54 crossbands in the A1367 and A194 clusters. I found the same shifting pattern. This is shown (figure 1.22) in my book and was published in the Astrophysical Journal in 1978-9 (volume 233). There are also consistent repetitive redshift patterns between completely different groups of galaxies. Figure 1.39 in my book relates the redshift pattern in compact groups (shown in figure 1.38) to the lower redshift A262 cluster. Periodic cyclical patterns in redshift, morphology and activity appear to extend to larger and larger scales. Figure 1.40 in my book illustrates an early model of galaxy evolution.
It required about four years beginning in 1970 to essentially convince me that the redshift must be an intrinsic property of galaxies by examining numerous remarkable and consistent correlations between magnitudes, morphology, activity and redshifts. The final step to recognizing that the redshift itself is a quantized quantity, which will appear in Topic005, led to a transition to what I refer to as the empirical study of the properties of the intrinsic redshift. As a professor, tenured in 1973, I diverged from classical cosmology in the middle 1970s to pursue a track tied solidly to observational findings related to the redshift. The redshift was clearly the key to cosmology.
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