Topic006: Testing the Quantum Concept: Double Galaxies I, Bill Tifft 4/25/15
In the early 1970s I began three major observational programs utilizing the 90-inch Steward Observatory telescope and image tube spectrograph. The first program was the study of the redshift utilizing the Coma cluster and related galaxy clusters. (See Topic001.) This led into my third area involving large scale structure, which is introduced in this topic. The second program involved a comprehensive study of a new catalog of double galaxies published by Karachentsev, discussed in this topic and Topic005. The timing of beginning this general study corresponded perfectly with my discovery of redshift quantization and provided a perfect sample to test quantization and examine its properties.
The Karachentsev catalog contains 603 northern hemisphere pairs brighter than magnitude 14.5, including 324 with separations less than 80 arc seconds which allowed both components to be observed together spectroscopically using an oriented slit. Differential redshifts are much more accurate than forming differences from individual values. I collected about 500 spectra for the close pairs and a few wider ones. Reduction and analysis was begun as my 1978 sabbatical project in Bologna, Italy. However, the first actual quantization test in pairs occurred before I completed the Karachentsev analysis when I was provided with a 21-cm radio study of pairs. After giving a colloquium in Bologna concerning quantization I was presented with a paper, a thesis study of pairs by Peterson, with a comment that it would no doubt show that my concept was incorrect. The person who gave me the paper had obviously not reviewed the paper himself since when I examined the data it actually confirmed my predictions precisely, quantization was clearly present.
Initial studies of periodic quantization were done using In/Out ratios where in and out are the number of galaxies with redshift differentials within or out of half interval multiples of 72 km/s centered on or midway between the predicted interval derived from my Coma cluster studies. The lead figure for this topic shows the original pattern, figure 2.9 in my book. (For book information or acquisition see Post001 and Post002.) The upper part shows the full sample of the most accurate data compared with an equal area continuous pattern. The lower part omits optical data (dashed) and other possible biases, such as beam overlap in close pairs or very wide possible optical pairs. The Chi Square probability that the upper figure fits a continuous pattern is 0.006 which drops to 0.00001 in the lower frame. Two attempts to publish this result in the leading European journal were rejected but the paper was accepted by the Astrophysical Journal immediately. Clearly, quantization of redshifts is `simply impossible’ according to most `established’ scientists regardless of the evidence. The Karachentsev sample study, along with a detailed discussion of the In/Out evaluation process, was also published in the ApJ in 1982. That study confirmed quantization in all subsets large enough and precise enough to properly test for quantization. See my book or the 1982 article for details. In/Out procedures are effective when only a few cycles of a previously defined period are involved.
Virtually all galaxies occur in groups. As pair separation increases accidental pairing, `optical’ alignments, begin to contaminate samples of physical pairs. Single dish radio samples are limited to wide pairs to avoid beam overlap. Isolation of possible pairs is therefor a critical criterion defining samples of physical pairs in single dish 21-cm studies. My colleague John Cocke and I began an extensive program of 21-cm observations of galaxies in 1984 to both determine the accuracy of radio redshifts and provide a precision sample for global redshift periodicity studies. In global studies direct redshift measures define periodicities compared with direct measures of redshift intervals found from pairs. An extensive program of 21-cm data on pairs was also developed by a group at Cornell University, although their sample was heavily contaminated with non-isolated systems. I will discuss observable effects of contamination in the final paragraph below.
The results of three studies done in the 1980s and high quality data from my study of the Karachensev’s catalog are shown in the lower left part of figure 4 in my ASP paper `The Nature of the Redshift’ available on this website, and figure 2.13 in section 2.3.5 of my book, where the samples and related discussion are provided. The top segment of the figure contains upgraded and extended data from the Peterson sample (filled circles) and additional Cornell data (open circles) for all pairs which satisfied the same isolation criteria. The samples are indistinguishable. The middle segment adds optical data from a precision high resolution southern hemisphere study by L Schweizer, which is again indistinguishable. The final section adds the most reliable data from my Karachentsev optical study which is slightly less precise. As I would later discover, much of the substructure in the peaks could also belong to real still finer structure in the peaks. You can see this in my book in figure 2.18 in section 2.3.7. There is absolutely no evidence for gravitationally induced dynamical motion in two body galaxy systems. Real motion or just projection effects would destroy the pattern. The redshift must be an intrinsic property of galaxies to be independent of either motion or projection blurring.
One further important result emerged from the precision studies in the 1980s. Dynamical predictions or projection effects alone require that the redshift differential distribution must peak at zero. the projected distribution of any velocity interval, in an isotropic distribution of intervals, spreads uniformly between zero and the full value. Superimposition of observations of any set of randomly oriented velocity intervals must therefore peak at the common value of zero. An I/O tests cannot verify this since it does not distinguish where a point is within I or O intervals, but it is now clear that identical redshifts, a peak at zero, is not seen. The lowest peak is displaced from zero. Along with quantum spacing a quantum exclusion principle appears to be present. This will also explains why an isolation criterion is required for samples of pairs. In crowded quantized regions, where the ground states are occupied, degeneracy forces some members into higher levels blurring the pattern. This effect is shown in my book using the non-isolated portion of the Cornell sample and a special study of triplet patterns at 21-cm. See figures 3.51 and 3.52 in section 3.10 and figure 2.17 in section 2.3.6 of my book. Double galaxies provide a very powerful test for redshift quantization, with more to come.
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