Topic007: Testing Large Scale Dynamics: Double Galaxies II, Bill Tifft 6/08/15
Results from the study of the Karachentsev catalog of double galaxies, other precision optical work and especially several 21-cm studies noted in Topic006, indicated that differential redshifts in pairs were quantized, quite inconsistent with conventional dynamical expectations of motion under gravity. The second study to test for dynamical motion between galaxies utilized orientation of the pairs. Widely separated doubles, governed by independent local gravitational dynamics, should show no significant correlation between their orientations. This topic introduces the subject of large scale structure and examines the orientation correlation between widely separated galaxy pairs in superclusters.
Since the Karachentsev catalog covered a large part of the sky, the pairs provided a well defined sample of a typical component of superclusters sufficient to determine the scale and form of such structures. While observing and shifting between closely spaced pairs it became apparent that redshifts were quite similar suggesting spatial clumping. More interesting was that locally only small changes in spectrograph slit orientation were needed to place both galaxies on the slit. Pairs within a common redshift `cloud’ appeared to have quite similar orientations. As one shifted further to a nearby region a modest change in redshift was typically seen suggesting a separate, but related, cloud of objects. However, the orientations remained aligned, usually with at most a small progressive change.
The lead figure for this topic shows the cloud pattern (figure 2.19 and the upper part of figure 7.19 in my book) which associates with the Cancer cluster of galaxies and extends to the north near 8 hours of right ascension. (For book information or acquisition see Post001 and Post002.) The upper right part of figure 4 in the ASP paper associated with this blog (figure 2.20 and the lower part of figure 7.19 in my book) shows an east-west structure in the Coma-Virgo region. Clouds widely separated in redshift are shown dashed. A discussion of the cloud patterns over the entire area surveyed reveals that they are individual beads-on-a-string filamentary structures (see figure 7.21 in my book). The subject is discussed in seminar 7, 7.6.2-5, in my book. Pairs and elongation of clusters within the filaments are consistently aligned with the large scale structure. In clusters the elongation appears to be produced by the ‘core growth’ of redshift discussed in Topic004 which may be connected with morphological and cross band evolution as noted in Topic002 and Topic003. Can structures actually `grow’ this way producing what we now call supercluster filaments?
The lower right frame of figure 4 in the ASP paper (Figure 2.21 in my book) shows the remarkable large scale orientation pattern in the Coma-Virgo filament. Position angle (PA), the clockwise alignment angle from due north, ranges from zero to 180 degrees and is plotted in a double cycle against redshift to show the correlation. Alignment is equally clear if plotted against position on the sky. All the linked structures show alignment with consistent internal 180 degree properties. Position angle can be defined in a 360 degree range, if sufficient luminosity differences are present, by using the faint to bright (FB) angle. This pattern shows that there are long runs in one orientation with sudden reversals. Figure 7.24 and associated discussion of the Perseus supercluster in my book provides a good example. There is absolutely no evidence for random patterns in either redshift or orientation expected from isolated gravitationally induced two-body orbital motion.
Concepts leading to QTC were developed successively and in most respects presented that way in my book and blog. The retrospective view of the evolving end product was obviously not yet available as QTC developed. Some advance commentary is now available and may assist readers to anticipate and contemplate what may be coming although much direct evidence still lies ahead. What may seem to be impossible may actually be possible, although some deeply held (but unproven) concepts must change. The following discussion relating to an alternative for large scale gravitationally driven motion (dynamics) is in that class.
Redshift quantization combined with orientation correlations place extremely stringent restrictions on theories which attempts to retain significant large scale gravitational dynamics. In fact both redshift quantization and the large scale orientation correlation are necessary to completely rule out gravity as the source of `motion’ between galaxies. It is possible to have a form of flow, which is what underlies QTC cosmology, that drives universal expansion but is not force-related dynamical. It requires a fundamental reinterpretation of the concept of time but it fits the facts. The topics discussed so far have shown (and will continue to demonstrate) that the redshift (actually its energy packaged as photons and particles) is a quantized non-dynamical quantity which decays through an energy-level pattern in quantized steps. In QTC the redshift represents the ‘radial’ decaying component of energy working its way in steps through what we choose to call a 3-d medium named time extending from a near-singular origin. Given the appropriate transformation, physical ‘decay’ or ‘aging’ is the same 1-d ‘flow’ through time, now in a ‘particle’ form of energy in what we call a continuous 3-d medium ‘space’. In QTC the two media are transformed forms of the same thing, which, and this may be going too far at this point, may be two real forms of nothing at all (see the book epilogue when ready). In order to decay, either temporally or physically, the medium in which it occurs must spread out laterally; the media must be both 3-d and possess a form with the means to allow decay. There must be a way to convert what we choose to call a temporal radial quantum flow in time to a ‘continuous’ aging flow within spatial ‘particles’ of matter controlled by continuous forces limited to space. Forces must operate only in a limited range (‘now’) of the overall medium of time which must incorporate past and future. A continuous aging process in spatial particles must progressively alter the particles quantum temporal wave function such that redshifts can progress forward in its next quantum step. In QTC galaxies are such ‘particles’ embedded in a 3-d temporal medium. Time is three dimensional in QTC to accomplish this, but looks (nearly) 1-d by aberration since the particles as a whole are what is flowing (decaying) in time. It is only as particles of matter that time (as decay) can flow continuously until sufficient to permit the next quantum radial decay step that we see as a radial step in the redshift. We have to demonstrate the lack of lateral dynamical connections of motion through time by showing the absence of motion between isolated particles (galaxies) in the spatial form, hence the necessity of both radial quantization and lateral orientation tests to dispose of large scale gravitational dynamics. Orientation and quantization taken together provide very powerful limits on what kind of motion and form of flow is possible involving galaxies. Subsequent topics explore tests which appear to confirm the above described concepts.
Since my book appeared independent confirmation of orientation on the cosmic scale, which began with my study of galaxy pairs, has occurred. I refer to the important observation of orientated axial properties of quasars. Excellent work by Damien Hutsemekers et al is discussed in the article “Spooky Alignment of Quasars Across Billions of Light Years” among the science articles provided on the Home Page of this SASTPC website.
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