**Topic012: The Quantum Periodicity Structure, Energy Level Decay, Bill Tifft, 10/12/15**

It was apparent from early differential and global studies that redshift periods appeared to be related in some form of harmonic pattern associated with an interval near 72.5 km/s. A key step in understanding that pattern came in early 1993 when Ari Lehto, a physicist in Finland, wrote to me with a reprint of his work. He had found that he could closely represent the mass of the electron and other particle properties along with the initial redshift periodicities we had found. The premise was simply begin with the Planck units, which mark the origin point of known physics, and allow them to decay by a well known process of period doubling, basically powers of two. The Planck unit c, the speed of light, times two to the negative twelfth power is 73.1916 km/s and the 36 km/s period is 1/2 of that. Lehto actually found that to describe particle properties in general it was necessary to use powers which were cube roots of two. The upper line of the lead figure for this topic shows the equation, where the right hand form distinguishes the doubling level, D and the cube root involved, which ranges from 0 to 2, is distinguished by L. The 73 and 36 km/s redshift periodic dipole energy intervals are members of the pure powers of two set, L = 0.

When describing fundamental particles the initial scaling constant is the Planck energy scaled by a constant related to the form of a structural vector model applicable to the particle, radial or azimuthal quantization. D is a composite sum of doubling levels on all 3 axes of the particle involved, D = l + m + n. Full details of particle models are provided in Seminar 4 and discussed in later topics. At this stage I will introduce general properties of fundamental particles and galaxies. The 3-d characteristic form of Lehto’s equation is consistent with the 3-d character of space, which appears to well describe the 3-d fermionic particle form of matter. In Seminar 4 of my book (for book information or acquisition see Post001 and Post002), and associated topics in this blog, I will develop my form of a theory of matter and energy, which is somewhat extended beyond the book form. Both book and blog discuss bosons and fermions, but since bosons associate with forces, which represent energy displaced over distance (or a time interval), bosons and forces are actually represented (in space) as 4-d. The 4-d form replaces 3 with a 4 and L extends to 3 in the basic equations to represent a spatial form of 4-space incorporating an interval of time. Such temporal dipole links are apparently what allows matter to be interconnected and communicate across limited ranges of time, including the range of each individual force which provides the distinction between space and pure time across which forces do not apply. Space retains what QTC defines as `temporal commonality’ within limited ranges of time. Scales of particles, including galaxies, are defined by the range of temporal commonality provided by their binding temporal force structure. Time itself, where active energy as photons operate, must be a radial 3-d index diverging from a near singular origin defining and decaying from the Planck time to account for Lehto’s formulation. The three dimensions of time, where particles flow along the radial `timeline’ dimension at nearly light speed, lagging a bit relativistically as they diverge from an origin near to, must fold up by aberration to generate the nearly 1-d form we perceive as time from within our galactian particles of space. Inside a galaxy particle we perceive the flow as continuous decay or aging within the spatial fabric of forces. Particles themselves periodically decay through permitted quantum energy levels within a 3-d quantum temporal universe which we perceive via the resultant quantized redshift.

The dimensional structure of fundamental particles and 3-d space are consistent, as well as several of the redshift patterns seen from the cosmic rest frame initially in the Virgo cluster. A Virgo power spectrum (figure 3.2 in my book) is shown at upper right in the opening illustration of Topic011 and at upper left in ASP paper Figure 8. However, there were some notable exceptions. The strong Virgo peak near 50 km/s was not predicted nor was the 2.6657 km/s period discovered empirically during the study of the 24 km/s substructure in Topic009. In April 1993 I realized what these periods were. In retrospect they can be explained since time is a 3-d structure in QTC. The 3-d character is revealed via the three individual dimensional axes of a galaxy’s timeline which are folded by aberration into the ‘nearly’ 1-d temporal 4-d link into space through which we perceive galaxies. Various types of galaxies have distinctly characteristic timeline forms. Just as different particles of matter appear within galaxies involving different individual spatial cube root patterns, a second level of cube root forms can be generated using the same class of variations within the temporal 3-d structure. Galaxy types can potentially assume nine ninth root forms (cube roots of the three spatial cube root forms). This immediately explained the missing periods and has now been extensively demonstrated observationally. The full set of possible ninth root redshift patterns is generated by the equation on the lower line of the leading figure of this topic. Different roots are defined by T which ranges from 0 to 8. Timeline structure will be discussed in a future topic and is included in Seminar 8 of my book where the early universe is discussed. Values of T = 0 and 6, equivalent to L = 0 and 2, are common, and T = 1, 5 and 7, adjacent states to 0 and 6, are present. Other T values are uncommon or absent. Subsequent topics will show that different T families do generate distinctly different morphological types and populate different profile width ranges although there is overlap. Certain specific widths also define transition zones which appear to be regions where especially active changes in the basic nuclear dipole structure of galaxies can decay to lower energy forms. An example is provided in the next paragraph. A study of the apparent structure of timelines appears to tell us much about the origin of the universe and the underlying structure of matter, energy and the fundamental forces. A triad of period doublings, the magic number 7 = 1 + 2 + 4 appears to play an important role in the nature of fundamental particle structure and forces which form the fabric of space.

To understand and clearly visualize quantization it is important to isolate homogeneous samples. Over the next several topics I will demonstrate how precisely the periodicity structure is known and work through specific samples to illustrate T forms using morphology profile width, redshift and asymmetry. Blurring effects of redshift variability, which shifts phase will be very apparent. It is obvious that the universe is RAPIDLY evolving especially at certain stages of development. I will provide some striking illustrations. To begin I will use the confirmation work of quantized redshifts provided by Guthrie and Napier in 1991, plotted in the galactocentric rest frame, but at periods now known, to illustrate effects. In the pair of figures below the lead figure of equations in this topic, the left hand image shows the GN sample in filled circles. Additional galaxies with the same properties from my work and work with John Cocke are shown in open circles. The samples agree well and include all types of spirals (t class 1 – 8) with redshifts less than 1000 km/s. The right hand frame, also shown in the galactocentric frame, contains only t = 4 (Sc in filled circles) and t = 5 (Sbc in open circles) with no redshift restriction. Phase is plotted twice through two cycles to show that both figures appear to contain TWO 36 km/s complex periodic patterns. From the QTC viewpoint there is actually one 18 km/s periodic pattern where a width segment between about 270 and 400 km/s at the top of the right frame is displaced down 0.5 in phase along clearly visible diagonal redshift variability cascades to form the second phase group beginning at width 200 km/s. The empty space around phase 0.2 in the right hand frame is then filled by the GN dwarf spiral concentration in the left hand frame which slopes down rapidly as a cascade to complete a 36 km/s transition through an intermediate 18 km/s quantum state. To see these phase cascades using phase-deviation diagrams, if you have my book, turn to figures 3.31-3 to see them clearly. The profile width region around 200 and 400 km/s contains very clear examples of redshift decay involving successive T = 0 redshift periods. Guthrie and Napier did indeed verify redshift quantization by overlooking redshift variability, limiting the study in redshift to local dwarf systems, and using phase clumping to find a `vertex’ which would optimally tune the sample. The redshift is indeed quantized, but far more complex.

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Reblogged this on Scientific Association for the Study of Time in Physics and Cosmology.

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