Topic014: Detecting Quantized Redshifts, Bill Tifft, 1/24/16
It took only a few years in the 1970s, given the fortunate presence of the nearby major Coma cluster of galaxies, to recognize that the redshift, using redshift-magnitude and related morphological correlations, was far more complex than simple relative dynamical motion. It took more than 10 years after that, using primarily double galaxies and early global studies, to convince me that on the large scale the redshift had nothing at all to do with classical motion. The redshift was in fact clearly quantized in a complex pattern. The finding that the redshift was globally quantized, could be and was demonstrated to change with time (in observable quantum steps which by the 1990s we could precisely define), left me absolutely no doubt that we lived in a universe governed by a quantum theory involving the nature of time. It still took me until the 2010s, in test after test, to pull it together and generate an integrated concept of Quantum Temporal Cosmology, QTC, published early in 2015, and it continues to evolve. (For book information or acquisition see Post001 and Post002.) The properties of that pattern MUST be understood to study, or even detect, the quantized pattern. In simple terms QTC indicates that the redshift defines a complex evolving cosmic energy level diagram through which galaxies (and quasars), as particles of passive energy, (matter), embedded in space, (a local fabric constructed out of time by the fundamental spatial forces), are decaying. This is not an incomprehensible mathematical model, it is a verifiable pattern based upon observations.
Using observed properties of matter and energy, QTC infers a consistent history of the universe, the nature of the cosmic redshift and the properties of time, matter, and galaxies. Origin of the universe begins with birth of time. The reciprocal of time is frequency, energy, where t=0, corresponding to infinite energy, is a singularity which can never be reached. Approach to that singularity must encounter fluctuations, interpreted as attempts of time to split or fission to remain finite. Those fluctuations are now seen as quantum foam on a much smaller scale. Such fluctuations normally fade away since they generate no stable configuration, with at least one exception, the universe does exist. That exception appears to have been a three-dimensional ‘dipole’ split into an alternate form of zero (time anti-time), where in QTC anti applies to ‘existence’ defined at the Planck scale. The universe in QTC is an existing evolving alternate form of zero net time and energy. It consists of time anti-time dipoles (bosons) involving (fermionic) instants of time. They interact to generate radial (aging) wave functions, timelines, to begin the quantum evolution decay process we see. The evolving temporal dipole has been observationally shown to exist in nuclei of galaxies which reside at a node on one of several forms (T) of timeline wave functions. Subsequent dipole interactions then form known fundamental particles and generate known fundamental forces. Most inconsistencies in dynamical cosmologies can be resolved.
To detect quantization, observations must be transformed to an appropriate rest frame. Initially a galactocentric transformation was used, assuming a galaxy to galaxy uniform pattern, to remove our dynamical motion within the galaxy. Local and differential studies detected quantization and variability with some distortion, but did not account for the true form of large scale quantization geometry. It could not detect quantum patterns at higher redshifts. A more basic transformation to a true cosmic rest frame, related to the cosmic background radiation (CBR), was found to be essential for global studies. That transformation, matching and explaining the scale of the CBR dipole (which in QTC defines the nature of dark matter), fits now known periodicities precisely at all redshifts after application of a cosmological curvature correction noted below. The QTC geometry model resolves the flatness problem since the universe is a spherical expansion of matter and energy through time where qo is a constant 1/2. The model also indicates the cosmological principle is incorrect, there is in fact only one preferred equivalent location, a point in time. The ‘cosmological correction’ accounts for dilation of redshifts due to the spherical curvature of time. It grows during ‘lateral’ photon transit time between diverging timelines and MUST be removed to see the ‘radial’ quantized redshift expansion through time. This lateral second expansion correction explains dark energy, absent in QTC, and was discussed and derived in Topic010. In addition to proper transformations and corrections, data samples must be carefully selected. Objects must be isolated (due to known phase shifting degeneracy effects related to local galaxy density), morphologically similar (related to different T states and galaxy evolution), and distinguished by activity (radio and strong emission relate to changes of state which mark beginning states of quantum patterns). It also appears that 21 cm data is required to observe and discuss short periods since only that type of data precisely measures true redshifts, which appear to be defined by the information boundaries of dark matter. These effects are discussed in my book and/or within my blog.
Two aspects of a quantum wave function must be discussed to generate and understand redshift quantization patterns. First, there is evolution of the basic temporal energy dipoles which define the energy levels involved, hence the frequency of the wave functions which propagates to generate periodically spaced quantized redshifts. Aggregates of matter, a compressed form of time, reside at nodes of a wave function where free fermionic (spatially distributed) states can exist within a `particle’ of space containing a few planes of temporal commonality linked by the bosonic (temporally distributed) dipole form of time. This dipole, or its evolved form, is observed to be present in galaxy cores which generate the perceived (serially periodic) successive spatial energy packet forms of an object as it evolves. This fundamental dipole, almost always in an initial `active’ form, provides the leading state in quantum patterns which take the form (as redshifts) of exact basic fractions of the speed of light c. The wave function of such states evolve in period doubling (factors of two) steps, D, defining periodic redshift patterns precisely described by the Lehto-Tifft equations (Topic012). The fundamental energy level may take up to nine ninth-root doubling forms (T= 0 to 8) marking beginnings of redshift doubling patterns which relate to morphology and activity of galaxies. Pure doubling, T=0, is most common with 6 (a 2/3 Keplerian pattern), followed by shifts of 1, T=1, 5 and 7. T=2, 4, 8, and 3 are rarely seen. Initial forms in all patterns are almost always active and define the known redshift peaks of quasars at z=0.3, 0.6, 0.96, 1.41, and 1.95 which correspond with Lehto-Tifft redshift values (after cosmological corrections) of basic c fractions z(LT) = 1/4, 1/2, 3/4, 1, and 5/4. The upper left frame of the initial figure in this topic (5.1 in my book or upper left in figure 10 of the ASP paper) shows the 3C catalog of active QSS redshifts. Peaks correspond closely with the Lehto-Tifft formulation. The pattern may be obscured if studies include non-active sources which will include decay products toward lower redshift and mask the pattern.
The upper right frame at the beginning of this topic (figure 5.9 in my book) is the cosmologically corrected redshift distribution of published redshifts in the Hubble Deep Field. It illustrates development of periodic redshift patterns below the quasar c/2 period. The peaks marked as `D fractions’ (fractions at 2 to the D power, 16 is 2 to the D=4 power, steps of c/16 in redshift). D fraction values begin directly below the absent value of 1/2 which was the location, at an earlier time, of a z(LT) = 1/2 D=1 quasar now completely evolved to lower doubling states (D=4 and 5, sixteenths and thirty-seconds of c). A look at the expected redshift decay process explains why the pattern begins with D=4 and 5 redshift levels, a demonstration not previously published. Expected evolution is in factors of 1/2 in redshift. z(LT) = 1/2 could have been the product of state z(LT) = 1 D=0 and should progressively decay to z(LT) = 1/4 D=2 in the HDF foreground. The best way to study foreground redshift patterns for quantization is to divide corrected redshifts by a predicted period to form a phase distribution where gaps or peaks will indicate presence or absence of shorter related periods. The lower left frame of the leading figure (figure 5.18 in my book) uses objects below z(LT) = 0.46 and the D=4 c/16 period since this doubling is clearly present below the z(LT) = 1/2 quasar gap. A z(LT)) of 1/4 D=2 should appear at 0.25 = 4/16 = 2/8, but is also absent as is 3/8. Also note that these peaks, as with z(LT) = 1/2, are represented by states of higher D immediately below them, indicating again that doubling has already proceeded (locally) to at least D = 3 and beyond. Note the sharp boundary above higher D value peaks. This passage probably proceeds in very rapid cascades as shown in my variability studies. Z(LT) = 1/8 D=3 can be detected weakly as active galaxies, considered to be evolutionary quasar-like products. This is shown in the lower right frame of the lead figure (figure 5.5 in my book). Even there active galaxies at D=4 and 5, 1/16 and 1/32 of c, are much more common consistent with the higher fractions seen below z(LT) = 1/2. Other examples of this doubling skipping offset in the more stable key doubling levels are consistently seen and shown in my book.
Tests which ignore the proper transformations, periodicity forms and critical sample selection effects cannot invalidate redshift quantization and the concepts inherent in QTC. Redshifts or D fractions in QTC are not direct indicators of `classical distance’, they are simply indicators of positions within D pattern wave functions. D itself is a measure of the degree of temporal evolution involved. The three dominant narrow peaks in the HDF analysis are in fact one aggregate of galaxies at about the same `distance’, their initial doubling point in time. The mid peak (and middle band in the Coma cluster) are actually older (D levels occur in succession, smaller values earlier). Division of a wave function to sixteenths occurs before division to thirty-seconds, even fractions reduce to and actually are members of the previous state in such a doubling process as demonstrated in my book (see the correlation studies in book section 5.4.4, the Coma cluster young vs old emission patterns in section 1.6.2. and the explanation of redshift-magnitude band patterns in section 8.3.5. Band patterns are a pairing of two successive D states incorporating 3 or up to 5 doubling fractions in bands which may be the maximum range which can simultaneously exist at such D ranges, at least as visible matter within our lookback corridor. Doubling stages occur progressively closer in temporal spacing and higher doubling fractions even closer in time (cross bands have much steeper slopes). The changes which have been seen in redshift variability studies are occurring every few years at D=17 levels. It is not clear this affects the galaxies, but they do drop slightly in redshift and luminosity, which may relate to how the outer fringes of galaxies drift radially into dark matter. This does appear to be consistent with recent work indicating the change in the net energy of visible matter looking back in time. When do you think OUR next shift will happen? We are drifting radially outward. Perhaps you had no idea that QTC had such consequences, but in chapter 8 of my book I was getting suspicious. Such a future looks quite possible, but is probably not too imminent.
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