Topic015: The Nature of Redshift Variability, Bill Tifft 2/21/16

Topic015: The Nature of Redshift Variability, Bill Tifft 2/21/16

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At this point I have introduced many of the basic aspects of Quantum Temporal Cosmology, and demonstrated such effects as redshift quantization and variability using real data sets. The effects are new and complex so attempts to verify the findings must clearly understand them and the procedures required to detect and study them. To begin, sets of equivalent high quality observations of the same sets of objects are required, but until my work, beyond a few casual comparisons, there was no apparent reason to do so. The detection of the amazing quantum and especially variational properties of the redshift came as a real surprise, but after the first glimpses it has been an incredible adventure in reality. In the preceding Topic014 I discussed the quantization pattern structure in detail. Topic015 will attempt to cover the issue of variability. I will assume familiarity with the introduction of the subject in Topic009 and begin this much more advanced discussion briefly reviewing quantization and how its study relates to redshift variability.

As discussed in the previous topic, the redshift periodicity structure is generated through a period doubling, D, process and distributed in up to nine ninth-root of two ‘T states’ (T=0 through 8) patterns. The pure doubling form T=0 and the ‘Keplerian’ 2/3 form T=6 are common, while T=1, 5 and 7, adjacent to 0 and 6, are also present while other forms are rare or absent. Periodic redshift patterns are then seen, in fractions of higher doubling levels, below the basic doubling fractions. At any given lookback time it appears that only a few doubling levels can exist simultaneously and the serial periodic D levels (decay states) present increase systematically as the universe ages (lookback time decreases). The rate of decay also appears to be rapidly increasing as D increases.

Demonstrating variability and associating properties of galaxies with quantum properties such as T and D states is not simple. As demonstrated in Topic009, serial changes in redshift can and do appear to occur very often in small steps within cascades, between relatively stable longer periods, which blurs periodic phase structure. Although it may be incredibly difficult to believe, in QTC a galaxy appears to be simply a tiny (on the cosmic scale) assembly of matter/energy, compressed into a particle we call space, flowing along a quantum timeline at slightly less than the speed of light. I know no other way to interpret the REAL data. Particles, including ours, are decaying through successive energy levels at different rates and times determined by quantum numbers such as D and T, which define the evolutionary path through cosmic time that we witness as the evolution of redshifts. Redshift variability appears to be simply the differential ‘slosh’ of that flow, with respect to OUR current level, we see as we all flow along our individual timelines. Except at long periods the most effective way to see this flow is to use phase-deviation diagrams as I shall demonstrate. Phase is the decimal part of the redshift (after proper transformations, corrections and sampling as discussed in Topic014) divided by P, the periodicity being studied. Deviation is the redshift difference seen in each individual galaxy between two epochs. Phase-deviation diagrams take two forms. If all objects are plotted at the phase of the oldest observation later deviations will distribute in horizontal lines at that phase. If each point is plotted at its individual deviation and phase the track will be a sloped line or lines (depending upon the mixture of decay states present in the sample even though they may belong to the same longer more stable state). Each deviation, of course, also contains any shift our galaxy may have made between the epochs.

The upper left frame in the figures shown at the beginning of this topic (figure 3.25 in my book) is a phase-deviation diagram of all galaxies with both a Fisher-Tully (FT) and Tifft-Cocke (TC) redshift measurement taken about ten years apart. (For book information or acquisition see Post001 and Post002.) The period used is T = 6 46.1078 km/s and includes galaxies with profile widths (W) in the range 100-300 km/s. This width range bridges the 200 km/s point which may be an interval which can no longer readily accommodate a temporal dipole of the 73 km/s class as we witness the passage from giant to dwarf spiral galaxies. Note that without recognizing the periodic ‘deviation wave’, redshift periodicity would not be detected. There is no significant phase concentration, there is now a concentration of a change of phase, the evolution of the redshift of the galaxies associated with the particular period. John Cocke and I did not detect periodicity at intermediate widths in our initial global studies since we did not distinguish morphological `t’ forms at that time. The solid dots, t = 10 class dwarfs morphologically, were clearly shifting. This changes at t = 8; galaxies with earlier t = 1-7 classifications show no significant variational wave (at that period). A table in figure 3.26 of my book clearly demonstrates the change at this point. However, there is a shift, which the right hand frame in the upper line of the leading figures (figure 3.32 in my book) explains. The less dwarfish t = 1-8 spirals of intermediate width are periodic in the T = 0, not T = 6, doubling family at the 18.2979 km/s period. They show, with remarkable clarity, periodic phase cascades within that periodicity. This explains how Guthrie and Napier were able to verify a 36 km/s T = 0 quantum periodicity by limiting their sample to well defined spirals omitting t = 10 dwarfs. This also explains why John and I did detect 36 and 72 km/s periods using wider profiles, as shown in the lower left leading figure frame (figure 2.29 in my book, and in Topic008 within the ASP paper Figure 5) where sequential cascades are now synchronized and few dwarfs are present. You can see the diagonal ‘cascades’ which puzzled me at the time. The cascade slope implies decay proceeds faster as profiles narrow, and giant galaxies may systematically evolve toward dwarfs as they age. Readers who have my book may glance ahead to figures 3.38 and 3.50 where still shorter T = 0 and 6 periods produce higher cascade multiplicities and introduce profile asymmetry as a factor inducing transitions. Transition probabilities grow as wave function overlap increases. Morphology and 21 cm profile width range must be carefully selected to detect specific periodicity associations.

21 cm redshifts are essential to achieve the high redshift precision necessary to detect the short periods involved in variability cascades. This has been discussed in the previous topic and appears to relate to how the boundaries of galaxies are defined. Even precision optical nuclear region redshifts will be influenced by real localized internal dynamics. Carefully generated 21 cm redshifts can achieve consistent precision at the 1 km/s level. Note that phase spread in phase-deviation diagrams at longer periods has nothing to do with 21-cm redshift precision, it is mostly due to spread in the cascade status within the longer period. Precision possible is best seen in phase-deviations diagrams at very short periods where even changes in asymmetry can be detected. See the right hand lead figure in Topic009.

As a final point I should emphasize the rapidity and frequency of cascade transitions. The lower right frame of the lead figure (the lower frame of book figure 3.27) clearly shows a transition wave of 2 km/s amplitude over a two year interval as detected in the Tifft-Cocke data in the P=46.1078 km/s T = 6 family. Changes are effectively instantaneous. QTC is presumed to have been born as a quantum fluctuation of zero net time/energy, and appears to be systematically evolving back to zero. A new set of 21 cm observations of the standard redshifts I established in 1988 is clearly overdue to extend such a study.

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