Topic028: Hubble Deep Field Redshift Discordance, Bill Tifft, 10/17/16

Topic028: Hubble Deep Field Redshift Discordance, Bill Tifft, 10/17/16

topic_029_s5f11-12t

Book figures S5.11 and S5.12

topic_028_s5f13-14_b

Book figures S5.13 and S5.14

In this topic I will describe tests which QTC predicts (and passes), that the three major redshift peaks (z = 0.475, 0.516, and 0.559) in the HDF sample, discussed in Topic027, constitute a single aggregate of galaxies just as do the redshift-magnitude bands in the Coma cluster. The upper left lead figure (book figure 5.11), shows the positions of all HDF galaxies with z between 0.46 and 0.6 with magnitudes brighter than 23.5 (to omit obvious background galaxies and account for the deeper survey of the central field). (For book information or acquisition see Post001 and Post002.) Symbols distinguish each peak and unassociated objects. The field is clearly clumpy with two large blocks (scaled to match local groups) and a small block as a typical discordant pairing. The two scales, arc seconds in declination and seconds in RA, are roughly matched in scale. All the clumps, marked and others unmarked, clearly contain objects from several or all three peaks (spaced more than 12,000 km/s in redshift) which, after proper transformation to the cosmic frame and corrected for the QTC cosmic curvature, relate to c/32 quantum redshift steps directly below c/2 (which is completely devoid of objects). The specific steps are 15c/32, 7c/16, and 13c/32. The distinction is important since the doubling process should proceed sequentially with c/16 stages preceding c/32 development. The c/2 state is totally gone at this information transit time ‘distance’).

The following paragraph is quoted from my paper, presented at the Hoyle Memorial Conference at Cardiff UK in 2002, and published (Ap&SS 285, 429).

To assess the significance of the discordant associations D. Christlein, [a graduate student who assisted me], carried out Monte Carlo evaluations between pairs which combine different redshift peaks. The number of pairs between specific peaks, in ranges of separation, were counted for the observed distributions and compared with 1000 samples generated by random wrapped displacements in RA and Dec of the objects in one peak relative to the other. Block displacements were used to preserve any real clumpy structures. [The upper right lead figure (book figure 5.12)] shows the result for associations between the two extreme [c/32] peaks separated by 25,000 km/s in redshift, and for associations with objects which are not in peaks. The peaks which phase together show a clear excess of associations for both close pairs and groupings. Objects which do not phase together do not show significant associations. Comparisons between adjacent peaks [c/16 – c/32], which have redshift differences in the 12,000 – 13,000 km/s range show [related] correlations. We find clear evidence for physical association of galaxies widely discordant in redshift which phase together in periods corresponding to simple fractions of the speed of light.

In the above quotation The c fractions added and one word changed (the word ‘similar’ was changed to ‘related’), since there are important relationships between the c fractions discussed herein. The three peaks are ordered in redshift, but are NOT in order of temporal age. The doubling process in time has fascinating consequences! As noted at the end of the opening paragraph the 7c/16 (z = .516) energy state is oldest since the D = 4 sixteenth states precede D = 5 thirty-second states. The 15c/32 and 13c/32 states must be the products of the doubling decay of objects within the 7c/16 state. The doubling process, a ‘split in time’, must satisfy both conservation of energy and time as it does, (energy ((15c/32 + 13c/32)/2 = 14c/32 = 7/16)), (time (+1/32 + -1/32 = 0)). The split is instantaneous but what you see are instantaneous redshift changes which have actually been observed (book section 2.6, book Ap2, Topic009 and Topic015). However, all parts of a change may not be visible to us if the step in time exceeds the limited `width’ of our `NOW’ lookback zone (the temporal zone we occupy between past and future) The doubling process can move the timing of successive nodes beyond these bounds, especially at high redshift where the quantum steps are large. The doubling process relates three successive temporal nodes (energy states) separated by the doubling interval of the the state involved. The transition process is effectively a shift between Fermi and Bose simultaneity statistics as time is compressed at a wavefunction node, which is where galaxies reside. Depending upon how many related cycles fit and can be perceived within our now interval between past and future ‘discordant’ redshift pairs can be seen for sure. Spacings will depend upon which of the three connected nodes (‘planes of time’) are involved and just when a doubling occurs object by object. c/32 intervals of time earlier or later are involved in the HDF case. 7c/16 is a doubling c/16 state, not 14c/32. The three consecutive `planes of time’ mark a D state transition. The D state transition, not the three z values involved, is the measure of spatial ‘distance’. The D fraction values are what we see as z, space appears to be a compressed form of time. The three peaks are at the same ‘distance’ in a spatial sense but represent different temporal `energy levels’ (ages) in a quantum doubling temporal/spatial decay pattern. As I will note later this is exactly what we see as redshift-magnitude bands in clusters of galaxies. To see the spatial aspect of the HDF structure of time we need to examine the leading figures of redshift correlations.

The lower left frame (book figure 5.13) compares the oldest 7c/16 state with the 15c/32 state one c/32 higher in energy (earlier in time) so later (more redshifted) upon photon arrival here as the upper half of a 7c/16 split. Correlation is very strong, pairing down to 10 arc seconds with distinct grouping. [NOTE: In QTC spreading in 3-d time is by individual timeline flow, timeline divergence aimed nearly at you (by aberration) at c, not explosive spatial ‘velocity’ which is motion in space existing only within galaxies (spatial ‘particles’)]. At most only one c/32 of time has elapsed. This also explains precise c/32 spacing of the 15c/32 state below the (absent) c/2 state which must have long vanished or be unobservable since external timelines cross our lookback ‘now’ zone at an angle (discussed in a later blog). Now view the upper right leading frame (book figure 5.12) comparing the 15c/32 and 13c/32 states two c/32 time intervals (two wave function cycles) apart. Pairing has spread to 15 arc seconds by timeline divergence and grouping is present at temporal scales much as seen locally. The peaks are still sharp, spread in time (2c/32 in redshift lookback) but spatially correlated. This effectively demonstrates what QTC refers to as spatial ‘temporal commonality’ within and between ‘planes of time’ within a galaxy. Space incorporates a temporal merger in exchange for spatial expansion! Now examine the lower right lead figure comparing the 7c/16 and 13c/32 states one c/32 temporal energy state below 7c/16. This would appear to be a composite more complex state involving evolved cycles of 15c/32 and the further evolved direct split from 7c/16. Some objects from 7/16 may have cycled further on, some out of our now window or more widely spread. Close pairing is gone leaving a dip at 30 arc seconds and few groups remain. Wider grouping effects may also be affected by close block preservation in the statistical shifting process. More individual fields must be studied to better understand transitions between states and will be discussed further later. However, a divergence pattern with temporally `discordant’ redshifts is clearly present within the HDF sample, predictable and expected within QTC. The next step is to examine aging patterns. Is the 7c/16 peak really older than the c/32 peaks? We will examine that issue and connection of the HDF redshift peaks with redshift-magnitude patterns and properties in the next topic.

Topic027       Topic029
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