Topic033: Universal Aging V, Vertical Sequences II, Bill Tifft, 1/05/17
This topic uses correlations of the breadth (dispersion) of spectral lines with properties of E galaxies to examine effects of reinforcing (R) or opposed (O) offsets due to orientation of the nuclear quantum dipole. The previous topic examined the effects on rotation measures. Observed dispersions includes normal velocity dispersion, bulk motion effects of expansion and rotation variation along the line of sight, and the intrinsic dipole orientation effect. Dispersion in early type galaxies is rarely less than 100 km/s and closely related to their luminosity. Using absolute magnitudes derived from the standard Hubble flow (with some local classical dynamical distortions which I will note later) differential distances of sources is of no concern. The galaxy eccentricity (symbol Greek epsilon) is closely equivalent to morphology, even within the early types as shown in early redshift-magnitude studies, hence an equivalent eccentricity-AbMag or dispersion-ApMag diagram can be generated. Two values of dispersion are used, one, a central value (Greek sigma sub o) which, within an essentially optically transparent system, includes the full intrinsic dipole effect, two stream rotation, and radial expansion. The other (Greek sigma bar) is the average over the central region. Both values show dispersion increases with luminosity. The difference between the two values (sigma(o) – sigma bar) is a constant independent of both luminosity and eccentricity due to the dipole offset. An offset is predicted in QTC, but remarkably clearly present. The nuclear dispersion value samples both quantized dipole levels while the extended regions will typically sample mostly one (so with velocity measures it appears as rotation). This is shown in the lower lead figure (book figure A1.5). It precisely distinguishes the presence of a nuclear dipole offset, independent of shape (eccentricity) and luminosity, although the highest luminosity systems (above Mb = -21.5) are treated separately. For the giant highly luminous objects ordinary consistent dynamics is clearly breaking down. The size of the dipole effects may vary but the constant dispersion offset is perfectly clear.
The differential dispersion index clearly distinguishes O and R classes, which provided the dipole O or R correction for E galaxies used to show the smooth rotation pattern shown in Topic031. Book figure A1.6, as a terminal figure, shows the rotational effects for the full sample of galaxies, as a function of eccentricity, to show the effect of dipole orientation. The back and forward shifting of `apparent rotation’ at small eccentricities and steady rise above 0.2 confirm the dipole orientation distinction between slow and rapid rising rotation classes. The lower frame shows the same pattern as it breaks down for more complex super luminous systems. Full details for this figure are in my book. (For book information or acquisition see Post001 and Post002.) Based on such rotation related work combined with the dispersion offset, where both can be readily confirmed, it is very difficult to escape the fact that galaxies are built around quantum redshift dipoles.
Turning to the issue of vertical sequences, I begin by calling attention to E galaxies with near spherical shape, epsilon below 0.2. The upper left lead figure (from book figure A1.9) shows two dominant shape – magnitude = (epsilon) – (AbMag) diagrams of bands derived from the + and – bands shown in the in-text diagram below (book figure A1.4 to be explained shortly). The (epsilon) – (AbMag) diagrams show sloping bands with associated vertical sequences at band heads. A rank-sum test demonstrates that the band slope is real, there is only a few parts in 1000 that the fainter objects in either band have the same eccentricity distribution as the brighter ones. Banding is present as QTC predicts. It is also clear that eccentricity shows that the earliest, low eccentricity, E galaxies are completely distinct from higher eccentricity systems associated with progressive evolution along the sloping bands. The shape correlates with morphology which is differential redshift (increasing age) dependent. The vertical sequences must be the newest additions that define band structure. It is quite likely that they are final products of the doubling process returning or shifting within band structure. Before showing that with virtual certainty I need to discuss the in-text (sigma bar) – (AbMag) diagram for E galaxies (book figure A1.4) shown below. It is the most equivalent form of a redshift-magnitude diagram. Sigma bar is the most dipole-free index of the relationship of absolute magnitude to dispersion where dispersion change is most likely related to evolutionary progression seen in morphology and magnitude which is what increasing redshift represents in bands. Since the dipole is a constant it adds nothing directly to dispersion. It simply adds or subtracts a constant, especially to the core. Sigma-bar thus best represents the true variation of dispersion with luminosity. It is also significant here to note that classical studies now apply a redshift correction to determine absolute magnitudes by removing what is believed to be a local dynamical flow toward the Virgo cluster called the Virgocentric correction. Since such motion between galaxies is not present in QTC that correction is not included here. Omitting the correction sharpens the band diagram significantly providing another piece of evidence for the validity of QTC. The Virgocentric effect is simply a slight variation in the distribution and evolutionary status of distributed galaxies locally. The only appropriate correction to the redshift is the QTC cosmological correction for temporal curvature of time, directly related to the observed redshift after appropriate rest frame corrections.
The above book figure A1.4 is effectively the equivalent of a redshift – magnitude diagram as noted above. It will look more like one if the Mb scale is reversed, however, I opted to maintain increasing luminosity up and to the right. The diagram is clearly banded using a simple notation of + and – band names consistent with luminosity. Filled circles identify galaxies with smallest dispersion gradients, x if rising outwards. The lower frame is a projection along the bands to magnitude -21 which shows a contrast between the + and – bands of close to 3:1. The band spacing is 4 to 5 times the dispersion uncertainty which indicates the probability of producing the observed contrast ratio is less than a few parts in a thousand. Further details are provided in my book. Direct evaluation of the significance of dispersion bands is not the only reason for judging their reality. They possess identical properties. They have the same slope and spacing, identical morphological (eccentricity) trends (figure A1.9) and break into an identical cross-band substructure quite clear within figure A1.4, consistent with the data quality, and expected by QTC.
The cross-band structure provides an especially powerful test related to the vertical sequences. Figure A1.9 has shown that the low eccentricity galaxies do not associate with the morphological trends (ellipticity) but define vertical sequences. In the band diagram the three most deviant points in the band structure have small eccentricities. Furthermore the eight most deviant points from the two main bands clump at specific sigma-bar points which directly match the break points between the cross-bands in the band pattern. This is shown in the upper right frame (book figure A1.10) of the leading figure for this topic. This is precisely the location of vertical sequences discussed in Topic032, and shown much earlier in Topic003. It seems quite likely that the vertical sequences, consisting of near spherical E galaxies, represent the path of new or doubling produced galaxies into, out of or specifically between bands (D levels) which is what doubling accomplishes. The upper right lead figure in the previous topic shows the connection of bands as a hook at the base of the vertical sequences in the early compact groups and the A262 cluster. A clearer diagram where the mid band is shown is in the left panel of the in-text figure above (book figure 1.38, right). The sharp vertical pattern at the head of the upper Coma band in the lower left frame of the lead figure in the previous topic or the right frame of the in-text figure above (book figure 1.31) also show a clear band link. (These figures can also be found in the ASP paper Figure 3 and Figure 2, which include other related figures.) A careful study of these links and the clear patterns in the Perseus cluster could yield some fascinating information.
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