The mass energy of a particle in QTPP is described as the product of the Planck energy scaled by a vector structure scaling constant and a decreasing (negative) power of two defining the ‘doubling’ decay degree of the 3 or 4-d energy density associated with specific types of particles involved. Since the only variable is the doubling number that number is used to describe the ‘energy level’ of particles involved. The energy is tabulated (book section 4.2.5 Table 3) by integral doubling number N and the six 1/3 or1/4 fractional parts. In QTPP the basic energy unit involves a `triad’ of doublings 1 2 4, steps of 7, which constrain possible doubling levels. This topic shows the role of triads in generating quarks which combine to build hadrons and shows that the electron is a lower limit to quark energies. No more than the six known quarks are possible. The role of Higgs and the fundamental role of integral doubling level 56, where 3-d structures become possible, is discussed. A review of Topic023 may be useful preparation for this Topic.
The Zo and W Gauge Bosons at the high energy end of the particle pattern are present in QTPP only as transitions with no direct matching energy levels. The Zo and the three lower energy leptons are similar in one significant way, all four have transitions between levels of N.00 form which can associate them with both 3-d and 4-d transitions. Such a lepton form appears to both initiate and terminate known particle classes. A detailed comparison of the Higgs boson with the Kaon shows they both fit within identical doubling patterns, however, the patterns differ in relation to permitted triad defined levels. It is apparent that formation and decay patterns between energy levels take place between permitted triad structures not simply individual doubling steps. Triads, or doubling levels of triads, appear to be the actual individual building blocks for both known forces and particles.
The fundamental forces are derived and discussed using the Fine Structure Constant, Alpha, which measures the relative strength of forces with respect the Eo x do reference force at the Planck scale. The basic energy unit is the minimal 3-d temporal doubling 1 2 4 triad. The basic intervals are the doubling stages of the basic Planck interval which generates the various classes of particles and their forces. The full set of known values of Alpha are readily derived and implications relating to unification and singularities related to the series of scaled Planck intervals are discussed.
QTP predicts energy level patterns descending from the birth of the Universe, and populates those levels with a well organized and interlinked construct of particles. The structure relates in detail around energy level 64 which defines a core of 3-d baryons with the light mesons distributed below and heavier mesons and bosons above. This Topic begins the demonstration, through the light meson structure, how each 4-d flanking class is limited, and terminated by 3-d leptons. A similar terminus for quarks, bridging the overall pattern from top to bottom, is discussed after fundamental forces are considered in following Topics. This text is dedicated to my beloved wife Janet, on this second day of June, 2016, which would have been our 51st anniversary. It also marks my recognition of the tauon placement in QTP to complete the set of basic standard particles.
Before going into details of the nature of fundamental particles and forces, it is important to recognize that something simpler came before to assemble space and the complexities of the multitude of particles up to and including galaxies. In QTC the universe began with the birth of time. A figure summarizing the accomplishments of QTC is attached, with more to come, to remind you of what we have learned. Turning to particle physics, QTPP, after a brief look at the electron and the role of period doubling, the fit to baryons is discussed. Especially interesting is the Lambda baryon which appears to provide a bridge between 4-d mesons and the 3-d baryons. Overall baryon mass energy fits, including the Lambda at 4-d, agree with 3-d predicted levels generally within one percent. Unlike massless photons fits are very good but not precise due to unknown corrections due to relativistic and interactive properties of mass. Baryons concentrate tightly around level 64.00 where a Keplerian type of vector structure is possible. Particles such as the Higgs extend structures up to level 56 or beyond. Level 56 contains a key to the nature of matter and structure of timelines and quarks, building blocks of baryons and mesons.
Although numerous tests and important applications of QTC remain, it is time delve into particle physics to prepare for analysis and results to come. Most basic broad ranging evidence for QTC has been summarized. Just as QTC can address many of the puzzles of classical cosmology, it can address problems in particle physics such as predicting particle properties, including masses, and the fundamental forces. In this introduction I have slightly generalized QTC to QTP (P for Physics) as involving QTPP (particle physics) along with QTC (cosmology). The doubling process is then extended to predicting particle mass energies and making a clearer distinction between between space and time. The nomenclature for various classes of particles is summarized for readers unfamiliar with the types, and notations used in discussions to follow are summarized. The general energy level diagram for the basic `baryon’ family of particles (which includes the proton and neutron) is illustrated in the Topic019 header figures. Subsequent topics will discuss all the particle families, fundamental forces and details including the Higgs and apparent substructure of quarks.
This topic will continue discussing T state forms and processes. To use this space, give you something to contemplate, and officially put it on record, I will say what Quantum Temporal Cosmology proposes to be the relationship, and why, both 3-d space and time must exist together in some form. T states represent up to nine possible basic quantum wave functional forms of radial timelines, in three dimensional time, originating at the Planck origin point defining time and its reciprocal form energy. As the structure evolves (actually so it can evolve in quantum steps) some form of spatial structure, currently in the evolved form of galaxies, must form at the compressed nodes of the wave function. Now conventional spatial forces and matter, or something equivalent, can `age’ and `continuously’ advance in time (as it does now). This provides actual `aging decay’ preparing the temporal wave function so the temporal form can actually advance into its next periodic cycle in quantum steps (which we see as quantum steps in the massless photon as redshifts). QTC proposes (and can actually show) that, currently, continuous aging of matter in space does provide a `mechanism’ (a wave form distortion) to induce quantum decay in time. It accomplishes this via exchange between Fermi and Bose statistics, induced by the nodal compression of time (where we find the matter as galaxies). The process also involves (requires) special relativity and generates the uncertainty relationships. Think about it as QTC develops.
Except for T = 0 periodicities, easily detected in redshift samples defined by 21 cm profile width, other T states are more associated with variability and require phase-deviation analysis. Variability is apparently present at any width, but may be enhanced near phase breaks at W = 100, 200, and 400 km/s. T = 6 is apparently found, as is T = 0, at essentially all widths. T = 5 is rare, not well studied and mostly known from its strong presence in the Virgo cluster. T = 1 is closely associated with T = 0 and potentially may relate to decay of T = 0 states. This topic focuses on behavior in the profile width range 100 to 300 km/s around the 200 km/s phase-width break. There are marked differences in variability between giant and dwarf galaxies and between dwarf spirals and irregulars.
I apologize to the more casual readers of my blog for jumping ahead too fast in Topics 14 and 15. I keep hearing statements casually dismissing redshift quantization and completely avoiding variation evidence. I felt I should go on record to clearly define the effects, evidence, and procedures necessary to understand, detect and study such properties of the redshift. I may renumber those two topics later when they better fit the sequence. In the present topic I will return to my original subject intended for Topic014 to better define, discuss and illustrate T states.
Demonstrating variability and associating it with the properties of galaxies within Quantum Temporal Cosmology is not simple. Changes in redshift appear to occur often in small steps within cascades between levels in a periodic structure. Galaxies are decaying through successive energy levels at rates and times determined by quantum properties which define the evolutionary path of galaxies through cosmic time. Redshift variability appears to be the differential `slosh’ of that flow with respect to our current level. Effects are new and complex. Attempts to verify the findings must understand them and the procedures required to detect and study them. In the preceding topic I discussed the quantization pattern structure. This topic discusses the issue of variability.