# Topic024: The Triad Structure of Quarks, Bill Tifft, 7/31/16

The mass energy of a particle in QTPP is described as the product of the Planck energy scaled by a vector structure scaling constant and a decreasing (negative) power of two defining the ‘doubling’ decay degree of the 3 or 4-d energy density associated with specific types of particles involved. Since the only variable is the doubling number that number is used to describe the ‘energy level’ of particles involved. The energy is tabulated (book section 4.2.5 Table 3) by integral doubling number N and the six 1/3 or1/4 fractional parts. In QTPP the basic energy unit involves a `triad’ of doublings 1 2 4, steps of 7, which constrain possible doubling levels. This topic shows the role of triads in generating quarks which combine to build hadrons and shows that the electron is a lower limit to quark energies. No more than the six known quarks are possible. The role of Higgs and the fundamental role of integral doubling level 56, where 3-d structures become possible, is discussed. A review of Topic023 may be useful preparation for this Topic.