The fundamental forces were derived and discussed in Topic022, and originally in “Redshift Key to Cosmology” (Tifft, 2014), using the fine structure constant, Alpha, which measures the relative strength of forces with respect the Eo times do reference force at the Planck scale. The basic energy unit is the minimal 3-d temporal doubling 1 2 4 triad. Progressive basic doubling intervals generate successive classes of particles and their forces. This Topic034 discussion looks at the overall pattern of the force structure to examine a predictable higher level force and observable implications. Readers should review Topic022 to avoid duplication introducing this Topic.
In this topic I will describe tests which QTC predicts (and passes), that the three major redshift peaks (z = 0.475, 0.516, and 0.559) in the HDF sample, discussed in Topic027, constitute a single aggregate of galaxies just as do the redshift-magnitude bands in the Coma cluster. Correlation tests between the evolutionary sequencing of the peaks are discussed. Highly discordant redshift pairing and grouping is apparent, the peaks are mixed together!
The previous Topic026 demonstrated the high redshift quantized distribution of ACTIVE quasars and illustrated their period doubling connection to ACTIVE galaxies at lower redshift, which to see REQUIRES transformation to the cosmic rest frame and application of a cosmic correction due to the curvature of 3-d time that have been discussed in Topics010 and 011. I will clarify the corrections further in a later topic which will define the QTC lookback path in time. In this topic the distribution of galaxy redshifts in Hubble deep field studies is used to more fully define the structural nature of redshift quantization. The pattern consists of a doubling series of objects, starting at an ‘absent’ quasar at a basic simple fraction of c, followed by cyclical steps of galaxies in higher doubling fractional steps of c. This is an initial beginning of a temporal wave function energy which then extends in cyclical periodic cycles at the wave function energy between subsequent doubling steps. The QTC model fits real observational data essentially perfectly.
At this point I will backtrack a bit to move into higher redshift work leading into cosmology. Topic014 and 015 jumped forward a bit prematurely since it was necessary to clearly define redshift periodicity and variability to reply to studies attempting to indirectly dismiss the effects by association with unrelated studies before I had covered my work that proceeded defining QTC in book chapters 3 and 4. I can now begin discussing book chapter 5 with a summary of the premises formed from the early work. The studies at higher redshift quickly confirmed and solidified the path to QTC. Following the premises I will begin with a look at quantum properties of quasars which are precursors of galaxies in QTC.
This topic is a little different, and my work has been delayed because of the passing of my beloved wife Janet. I have introduced and demonstrated many of the basic concepts underlying Quantum Temporal Cosmology, many which are quite disturbing to adherents of classical cosmology and other schools of thought. There are a few things I need to make clear. Science should be a search for truth where all ideas must stand or fall on their OWN merits. I keep hearing comments that findings related to properties of work by the Arp-Burbidge-Narlikar school can be dismissed, therefore ALSO my work related to quantization and time. There is no significant overlap of my work with the premises of that school of thought. This blog topic, quite advanced for my regular topic series, is intended to explain what is actually required to understand and test QTC. Tests must utilize correct procedures and examine predictions and evidence representing QTC’s own unique findings.
The late 1970s through early 1990s marked a period when much progress was made defining basic properties of redshift quantization and its implications. The local galactocentric global nature of quantized redshifts and recognition that the redshift was variable and rapidly evolving were discussed previously. To extend redshift periodicity studies to higher redshift it became apparent that a z dependent distortion in the phasing of redshift periodicities must be present due to curvature in the structure of QTC on the large scale. This topic reviews the large scale temporal structure of QTC and discusses the `cosmological correction’ which corrects for curvature of time. The study also resolves the `flatness’ paradox of conventional cosmology.
In any expanding evolving cosmology, in continuous or quantum physics, the redshift must change with time. Classically it is very unlikely such change on the human time scale would be detectable. However, redshift variability became obvious as soon as new redshifts obtained between 1984-86 were compared with older surveys done between the 1960s and early 1980s. Redshift changes, much larger than any uncertainties, primarily shifts toward lower values, are present and become increasingly greater the older the past observations are for many galaxies. The redshift can apparently shift in quantum steps in just a few years as it cascades between longer more stable periods. This topic describes the discovery and initial study of the effect.
Discovery of redshift quantization in clusters of galaxies, with subsequent studies of double galaxies using differential redshifts, established that the redshift appeared to occur in periodic steps near 72.5 km/s or related multiples. The next step was to see if the redshift could be phased together globally. To accomplish that a transformation to the galactic center and precise 21-cm radio redshifts were required. This topic fills in background and implications of what is to come. The redshift is indeed globally quantized.
As redshift quality continued to improve a still finer structure emerged. Redshifts appear to assume a periodic quantized pattern, occupying specific steps in a decay or excitation process which can potentially be described by a quantum wave function. The source function appears to take the form of a quantum dipole embedded in galaxy nuclei. Preservation of the pattern implies there is little or no evidence that gravitationally induced motion can play any significant role between galaxies on the large scale. Publication of such new and controversial concepts is a complex problem.
Redshifts of external galaxies were first measured by V. M. Slipher in 1912 at Lowell Observatory. This is the start of a story with cosmological ramifications.