The mass energy of a particle in QTPP is described as the product of the Planck energy scaled by a vector structure scaling constant and a decreasing (negative) power of two defining the ‘doubling’ decay degree of the 3 or 4-d energy density associated with specific types of particles involved. Since the only variable is the doubling number that number is used to describe the ‘energy level’ of particles involved. The energy is tabulated (book section 4.2.5 Table 3) by integral doubling number N and the six 1/3 or1/4 fractional parts. In QTPP the basic energy unit involves a `triad’ of doublings 1 2 4, steps of 7, which constrain possible doubling levels. This topic shows the role of triads in generating quarks which combine to build hadrons and shows that the electron is a lower limit to quark energies. No more than the six known quarks are possible. The role of Higgs and the fundamental role of integral doubling level 56, where 3-d structures become possible, is discussed. A review of Topic023 may be useful preparation for this Topic.
The fundamental forces are derived and discussed using the Fine Structure Constant, Alpha, which measures the relative strength of forces with respect the Eo x do reference force at the Planck scale. The basic energy unit is the minimal 3-d temporal doubling 1 2 4 triad. The basic intervals are the doubling stages of the basic Planck interval which generates the various classes of particles and their forces. The full set of known values of Alpha are readily derived and implications relating to unification and singularities related to the series of scaled Planck intervals are discussed.
QTP predicts energy level patterns descending from the birth of the Universe, and populates those levels with a well organized and interlinked construct of particles. The structure relates in detail around energy level 64 which defines a core of 3-d baryons with the light mesons distributed below and heavier mesons and bosons above. This Topic begins the demonstration, through the light meson structure, how each 4-d flanking class is limited, and terminated by 3-d leptons. A similar terminus for quarks, bridging the overall pattern from top to bottom, is discussed after fundamental forces are considered in following Topics. This text is dedicated to my beloved wife Janet, on this second day of June, 2016, which would have been our 51st anniversary. It also marks my recognition of the tauon placement in QTP to complete the set of basic standard particles.
Before going into details of the nature of fundamental particles and forces, it is important to recognize that something simpler came before to assemble space and the complexities of the multitude of particles up to and including galaxies. In QTC the universe began with the birth of time. A figure summarizing the accomplishments of QTC is attached, with more to come, to remind you of what we have learned. Turning to particle physics, QTPP, after a brief look at the electron and the role of period doubling, the fit to baryons is discussed. Especially interesting is the Lambda baryon which appears to provide a bridge between 4-d mesons and the 3-d baryons. Overall baryon mass energy fits, including the Lambda at 4-d, agree with 3-d predicted levels generally within one percent. Unlike massless photons fits are very good but not precise due to unknown corrections due to relativistic and interactive properties of mass. Baryons concentrate tightly around level 64.00 where a Keplerian type of vector structure is possible. Particles such as the Higgs extend structures up to level 56 or beyond. Level 56 contains a key to the nature of matter and structure of timelines and quarks, building blocks of baryons and mesons.
Although numerous tests and important applications of QTC remain, it is time delve into particle physics to prepare for analysis and results to come. Most basic broad ranging evidence for QTC has been summarized. Just as QTC can address many of the puzzles of classical cosmology, it can address problems in particle physics such as predicting particle properties, including masses, and the fundamental forces. In this introduction I have slightly generalized QTC to QTP (P for Physics) as involving QTPP (particle physics) along with QTC (cosmology). The doubling process is then extended to predicting particle mass energies and making a clearer distinction between between space and time. The nomenclature for various classes of particles is summarized for readers unfamiliar with the types, and notations used in discussions to follow are summarized. The general energy level diagram for the basic `baryon’ family of particles (which includes the proton and neutron) is illustrated in the Topic019 header figures. Subsequent topics will discuss all the particle families, fundamental forces and details including the Higgs and apparent substructure of quarks.