Redshifts of external galaxies were first measured by V. M. Slipher in 1912 at Lowell Observatory. This is the start of a story with cosmological ramifications.
It is time to open my blog. If you do not already know about my work, I trust you have checked out my background and have at least scanned through my initial ASP paper “The Nature of the Redshift”.
The fundamental forces were derived and discussed in Topic022, and originally in “Redshift Key to Cosmology” (Tifft, 2014), using the fine structure constant, Alpha, which measures the relative strength of forces with respect the Eo times do reference force at the Planck scale. The basic energy unit is the minimal 3-d temporal doubling 1 2 4 triad. Progressive basic doubling intervals generate successive classes of particles and their forces. This Topic034 discussion looks at the overall pattern of the force structure to examine a predictable higher level force and observable implications. Readers should review Topic022 to avoid duplication introducing this Topic.
This topic uses correlations of the breadth (dispersion) of spectral lines with properties of E galaxies to examine effects of reinforcing (R) or opposed (O) offsets due to orientation of the nuclear quantum dipole. The previous topic examined the effects on rotation measures. Dispersion measures provide a means to relate vertical sequences with redshift-magnitude bands. An alternate form of a band structure is derived using dispersion correlations between luminosity, rotation and shape (eccentricity) the last of which is an excellent morphological index that distinguishes galaxies that fall in vertical sequences.
This topic briefly brings together the observational properties of vertical structures and their contents in preparation for a more detailed discussion in Topic033. Using line width (dispersion) data Topic033 relates E galaxies to vertical structures and redshift-magnitude bands as part of the doubling evolution process of galaxies and their nuclear dipoles. Dipole orientation has marked effects upon observed properties of E galaxies as already discussed in Topic031 with respect to rotation. There is more to come.
As the discussion of the doubling process began it became apparent that since it is a fundamental process which links space and time, the time has come to discuss the formative processes and relationships between time, space and its fundamental dipole structure. They define the basis upon which the universe is built and link together the observed facts and premises within QTC. Parts of this discussion is based upon new understanding developed as I assembled this blog, some aspects quite recently going well beyond my book. It includes the first appendix to my book which was based upon some of my last work before retirement. Completion of the doubling process will follow.
The previous topic began a discussion of the role of period doubling, and demonstrated end products (observed redshift distributions) seen within sets of data. How such a process actually appears to proceed from the ‘spatial’ viewpoint is discussed and illustrated in this topic. Many of the redshift, temporal and spatial properties previously discussed are involved. Discussion of boundary aspects of galaxies may explain a new effect. It is possible that transformation activity when space returns to temporal space can generate radiation near the CBR vertexes which is referred to as the zodiacal anomaly.
This Topic begins a discussion of the processes by which galaxies within aggregates of galaxies appear to form and evolve as the universe ages. Previously discussed observed quantized and structural properties beginning with the Hubble Deep Field and the role of period doubling are brought together. As discussion continues important observational tests and evidence in support of the process will be presented.
In this topic I will describe tests which QTC predicts (and passes), that the three major redshift peaks (z = 0.475, 0.516, and 0.559) in the HDF sample, discussed in Topic027, constitute a single aggregate of galaxies just as do the redshift-magnitude bands in the Coma cluster. Correlation tests between the evolutionary sequencing of the peaks are discussed. Highly discordant redshift pairing and grouping is apparent, the peaks are mixed together!
The previous Topic026 demonstrated the high redshift quantized distribution of ACTIVE quasars and illustrated their period doubling connection to ACTIVE galaxies at lower redshift, which to see REQUIRES transformation to the cosmic rest frame and application of a cosmic correction due to the curvature of 3-d time that have been discussed in Topics010 and 011. I will clarify the corrections further in a later topic which will define the QTC lookback path in time. In this topic the distribution of galaxy redshifts in Hubble deep field studies is used to more fully define the structural nature of redshift quantization. The pattern consists of a doubling series of objects, starting at an ‘absent’ quasar at a basic simple fraction of c, followed by cyclical steps of galaxies in higher doubling fractional steps of c. This is an initial beginning of a temporal wave function energy which then extends in cyclical periodic cycles at the wave function energy between subsequent doubling steps. The QTC model fits real observational data essentially perfectly.
At this point I will backtrack a bit to move into higher redshift work leading into cosmology. Topic014 and 015 jumped forward a bit prematurely since it was necessary to clearly define redshift periodicity and variability to reply to studies attempting to indirectly dismiss the effects by association with unrelated studies before I had covered my work that proceeded defining QTC in book chapters 3 and 4. I can now begin discussing book chapter 5 with a summary of the premises formed from the early work. The studies at higher redshift quickly confirmed and solidified the path to QTC. Following the premises I will begin with a look at quantum properties of quasars which are precursors of galaxies in QTC.
Particle `rest’ energies (as distinguished from excitation energies associated with the rest structure or interaction with spatial forces) conform with QTP Planck based doubling defined levels. This means that transitions between levels are excitation or decay between universal `potential energy’ levels. They involve only energy, not structural or properties such as charge, which are fixed rest properties which contribute to conforming to the level where the particle resides. The external factors relate to activity by and within particles which combines with its universal (redshift) level to show `spatial’ activity and dynamics within particles. Both universal decay and rest energy particle decay must involve specific universal paths. The kaon neutral (Ko) particle is unique since it has two different paths. This Topic shows that QTPP does have a decay path for the charged kaon forms and two different paths for the neutral form. The interaction of successive doubling levels provides interesting information as to how particles may decay.